Saffron, scientifically named crodcus stativus, is a perennial plant that has a spherical onion covered with a brown membrane. This plant is harvested in southwestern Asia, southern Spain and southern Europe. It has a stem and six petals with purple color and 3 stigmas with red color, which is the same as commercial saffron.
The stigma contains fats, minerals and mucilage. The aroma of saffron is due to the presence of colorless tropane essential oil and an oxygenated compound with cinnamon called safranal. The taste of saffron is related to the bitter hydroside of picrocrocin. The color of saffron is related to the existence of a substance called crocin.